Begriff-Lexikon

A

Abrasion group

Floor coverings / tiles are divided into classes according to their abrasion resistance; as such they have different application areas allocated to them e.g. Group 1 for light strain (e.g. living room).

Abrasion group

Floor coverings / tiles are divided into classes according to their abrasion resistance; as such they have different application areas allocated to them e.g. Group 1 for light strain (e.g. living room).

Abrasion resistance

Surfaces have high abrasion resistance and this increases useful life – these are determined based on the substrate properties using different mechanical tests (stress tests); in the final stage the output values are compared with the actual values. n-tec GmbH sets high nominal values  based on the mechanical strain results obtained.

Abrasion test

See Washing and Abrasion test.

Abrasion-resistant coating

Surface treatments which help to prevent wear and tear and thus reduce surface wear – this increases usage life. See tribological coating.

Additives

n-tec offers additives which can be mised with products to increase the effect of the overall product.

Agglomerate

Here: nanostructured materials – the smallest particles can be connected together (see Nanostructured Materials).

Air purification

The purification of air: to improve air quality by removing organic pollutants or nitrogen oxides– e.g. NOx – a breakdown in self-clean coating (photo catalytically active surfaces) – an example is botanic photosynthesis (air purification by e.g. trees)

Algicidal equipment

Biocides can be used as an additional substances against layers of algae e.g. when combating algae in swimming pools etc. In former times, copper sulphate was recognized as the standard means to combat algae in swimming pools.

Amphiphile

Describe substances that are both hydrophilic (see hydrophilicity) and lipophilic.

Anatase

Titanium dioxide – photocatalytic surface strucure (see also Bandgap) compared to the rutile crystal structure (approx. 3.0 eV).

Anti-Fingerprint

Surface coating which makes fingerprints invisible or easy to remove.

Antibacterial

Additional equipment which prevents bacteria from settling and thus spreading e.g. via touching.

Antifog

Usually hydrophilic surfaces, which leave no fogging on the surface due to humidity even when the temperature changes.

Antiseptic

See Antibacterial

Application

Describes the step of the application of the coating in the factory using e.g. wet chemical methods (spraying, dipping, knife coating, flow coating, rolls / rolling etc.)

B

Bacterial adhesion

Our easy-to-clean coatings have silicon oil-free smoothing properties as an additional feature depending on the type of application. This smoothing agent and the free surface energy reduction can significantly reduce the gathering of bacteria (not to be confused with anti-bacterial equipment)

Bandgap

With semi-conductors (such as titanium dioxide): refers to the distance between the valence and the conduction gaps. In the anatase modification (see Self Clean) the handgap is 3.2eV in the presence of titanium dioxide, whereby the material can be used as a photocatalyzer in the UV range.

Beading effect

(see hydrophobicity) hydrophobic surfaces should not come into contact with water; water contracts in drops; these have a large contact angle; given a certain angle and drop weight, these drops run very well (up to the point of no residue).

Bionic

Composition of BIO(-logy) and (Tech-)NIC – it describes the appropriation of natural conditions produced by industrial / technical means (the geometry of aircraft => dependence on the animal kingdom); plants surface structure (e.g. lotus leaf => coatings with artifically created, nanostructured surface)

Boundaries alteration effect

Description of a surface technology function: and it defines biocompatibility, wettability or varnishing.

C

C-cat

n-tec product for Self Clean surfaces.

CER 11; CER 11 F3; CER 11 F3 conc.

n-tec products for easy-to-clean surfaces (glazed wall tiles)

Ceramic

Is one of the oldest materials produced by mankind? Ceramic contains a variety of diverse inorganic materials which are solidified by fire.

Chemical nanotechnology

Refers to production and processing using defined chemical production and development processes with the application of e.g. sol-gel processes. Starting materials are selectively combined with each other and modified in ways that allow for new materials properties to be adjusted. This generates layers which, when applied, will leave layers that are only a few nanometers thick.

Chemical resistance

All of our systems are subjected to intensive stress tests. Depending on the finished surface application type, a variety of chemicals with defined presence lengths are used on the surfaces. A subsequent examination of the surface indicates whether or not the chemical resistance is achieved.

Coating system

Automated systems for the application of coatings – the purpose is to integrate these in the production process in such a way that there will be little or no additional delays.

Contact angle

Refers to the angle which a liquid droplet leaves on a surface. When talking about water contact angles, one recognizes small contact angles (less than 20°) with hydrophilic surfaces, and large contact angles (more than 90°) with hydrophobic surfaces.

D

Demoulding

Describes the process whereby cast materials are removed from the shapes (tools) in a virtually residue-free state.

Diffusion

Comes from Latin ‘diffundere’‚ it means pour or sprinkle. Diffusion is a physical process which allows for equal distribution and therefore the complete mixing of several materials.

Diffusion barrier

See Diffusion Density Matrix; employed during e.g. a sealing operation which – compared to conventional impregnations – also displays pore-filling and glazing properties.

Diffusion Density Matrix

A produced three-dimensional layer which prevents a material from diffusing in or as a result of the substrate.

E

Easy-to-clean

Functional coating – mostly hydrophobic – in practice, it must also be maintained and cleaned (albeit with considerably less effort). Easy-to-clean coatings gain additional value mostly as a result of improved optics (glazed ceramic) and protection against e.g. glass corrosion.

Edge Angle

See Contact Angle

Emission

The emission of pollutants; one distinguishes between anthropogenic (created by people) and natural (plants, animals, rocks). For example, cattle and swamps emit methane (CH4), while plants emit pollen and volatile organic compounds (volatile organic compound => also anthropogenic e.g. alcohol-based coatings (see VOC). Volcanoes emit sulphur dioxide.

ES AAP 01, ES LAP 01,

n-tec anti-fingerprint products (partially or fully frosted glass surfaces)

ES AE 01, ES AE 02/5, ES AE 02/10, ES LE 01N, ES LE P01B

n-tec easy-to-clean products (ESG – e.g. shower cabins made out of glass)

F

FS AV 02, FS LV 01, FS AV 02/3

n-tec products for the sealing of ceramic tiles (polished, lapped etc.)

Functionalization of coatings

See Functionalized Surfaces – this defines the specific adaptation or additional modification for generating additional properties on the surface.

Functionalized surfaces

General description of chemically or physically altered properties of surfaces; e.g. self clean or easy-to-clean.

G

Glass finishing

Glass finishing means every subsequent modification made to glass; from the drilling and grinding right up to the coating.

Glaze

Special glass which forms a coating for ceramic products (burned during the production process)

H

HC 200, HC 200/5, HC 200/20, HC 200/20CAT, HC Series

protection against stains, hydrophobic, pore filling

HC 56.1, HC 65, HC 65 FP, HC 65 FP/M, HC 65 FP/M12

n-tec for the sealing of ceramic tiles (polished, lapped etc.)

Hybrid polymer

These consist of organic and inorganic compounds within the chemical manufacturing process.

Hydrophilicity

This also comes from Ancient Greek and it means the opposite of hydrophobic. As such, a hydrophilic surface is “very fond of water“ – “it spreads water very well’’. Most metallic surfaces and untreated glass surfaces are hydrophilic i.e. the contact angle is significantly less than 20°.

Hydrophobicity

It comes from Ancient Greek, its meaning is along the lines of „water-repellent“ / „it avoids water“. When talking about surfaces, hydrophobicity is recognized in the form of a water-repelling effect (see Beading effect); with contact angles of more than 90° one speaks of a hydrophobic expression. In chemistry, a substance’s hydrophobicity means that it mixes poorly with water or not at all – it is not least this that makes the water-based coatings of n-tec so extraordinary.

I

Impregnation

This refers to the protection of e.g. textiles (woven fabrics) or mineral surfaces against wetting. This mostly exploits hydrophobic properties and paraphernalia. The hydrophobic properties and paraphernalia of n-tec are referred to as coatings.

Industrial coating

Our systems are designed for industrial application (see Application) i.e. the process technology and the equipment necessary for the maintenance of surfaces are not appropriate for household usage. However, we also offer our clients (repeat purchasers) rounding-off systems and subsequent care / finishing systems.

Inorgamic chemistry

Carbon-free chemistry

IR ES

n-tec used in the intensive cleaning of heavily soiled sanitary surfaces which are hydrophobic.

K

KU F TR 01

n-tec product for the reduction of wear and tear by rubbing with a simultaneous hydrophobicity / easy-to-clean effect.

L

LC 100, LC 100 G, LC Series

protection against footprint (shoe print) e.g. on lappato tiles, increase of gloss, stain resistance, increase of acid / alkalic resistance

Lipophilicity

The opposite of lipophobicity, this refers to „fat loving“ substances. Lipophilic materials are also mostly hydrophobic (insoluble in water – see hydrophobicity).

Lipophobicity

Describes fluid (grease-repellent) substances, such as water, which will not mix with fats or oils.

Lotus

This refers to research and development by Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Barthlott: investigations conducted with the lotus plant and its surface structure with the aim of appropriating its self-cleaning properties on artificial surfaces. This includes reference to lotus surfaces: looking at its microscopically structured surface. The superhydrophobic effect => contact angle more than160° - this is often incorrectly used as a synonym for easy-to-clean coating. In this context, it nothing more than a trend word.

M

Measuring technology

This refers to the devices and methods used for determining physical sizes with e.g. uncoated or coated substrates.

Multifunctional description

Coatings which show two or more functional properties e.g. easy-to-clean with antibacterial properties etc.

N

Nano-objects

Refers to materials that show one, two or three external nanoscale dimensions (approx. 1-100nm). They include: nano-particles, nano-fibres and nanoplates. Nano-fibres includes electricity-conducting fibres (nano-wires), nanotubes and solid nanorods.

Nano-structured materials

They possess an internal nanoscale structure and are usually composite systems of nano-objects e.g. aggregates and agglomerates which are the fruits of chemical nano-technology manufacturing processes (e.g. sol-gel)

Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials are artifically produced materials with new properties as a result of altered surface area to volume ratios. One distinguishes between nano-objects and nano-structured materials as a matter of principle.

Nanoshield ®

Protected brand of n-tec GmbH – refers to all n-tec products which are subject to direct sales.

NC 57.7, NC 65

n-tec products for the sealing of natural stone surfaces.

Non-stick coating

Finishing with low-level surface energy and / or implemented smoothing agent to reduce adhesions.

NOx, NOX

Refers to nitrogen oxides which have not been defined more specifically (nitrous gases or nitrogen oxides); these are also abbreviated by NOx; this is because there are several nitrogen-oxygen compounds as a result of different nitrogen oxidation states.

O

Oleophilicity

This means the opposite of repellency; it describes fat-loving surface properties.

P

PEI

Refers to a test procedure using a test machine from the American Porcelain and Email Institute (PEI). The test is performed on n-tec premises to determine the theoretical stress of the coating (surface wear / attrition) in use.

Photocatalytic active surfaces

See Photocatalytic Active Surfaces.

Photocatalytically acktive surface

Photocatalytic refers to a property of surfaces which has a self-cleaning function (mainly in the external region).

The n-tec photocatalysis is based on anatase (titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles) which are significantly more efficient compared to rutile. Thanks to UV radiation from sunlight, organic materials are decomposed on the surface and any residue shall be rinsed off when it next rains thanks to the (super-) hydrophicility. These layers also have antimicrobial effects. Depending on the system, an anti-fog effect can also be created. 

Plasma treatment

With some substrates, a pre-treatment with plasma can be a good idea, for the optimal preparation of the surface for the  subsequent coating.

Pot life

Defines the period in which a multi-component coating material can be processed after the mixing of the individual components.

Process technology

Describes the technology that is to be used or applied and the related technical processes which are used in the manufacturing or finishing of a product right up to the finished end product.

Q

Quality assurance

At n-tec all products are subjected to extensive quality tests prior to being inserted in the market, regardless of shipment size. The materials obtain approval for dispatch only once all appropriate tests have been passed; these tests include, among other things: chemical and mechanical resistance, effect and function testing, chemical and physical values etc.

R

Ready-to-use

Refers to the immediate availability of coating materials without additives or additional energy (e.g. long, intensive stirring). The delivered system can be used immediately.

Room curing

Describes the necessary temperature range in which the layers organize themselves and form a 3D network with the substrate. The goal is to prevent any temperature influx (cost and environment-related reasons, and to prevent damage to the process).

RSG

Reinforced Safety Glass – glass which, as a result of a change in voltage via heating to approx.  620 – 680° C and rapid cooling, has a fracture pattern with small pieces that are no longer sharp. This kind of glass is referred to as safety glass because of the lower risk of injury associated with it; it is used e.g. in shower cabins, glass doors.

S

Sanitary ceramics

Mostly glazed ceramics in washroom areas e.g. batch or white goods WC, urinals, bidets, sinks, washbasins, etc.

SC AE 01, SC AE 02, SC AE 04, SC AE 06, SC LE 01N

n-tec products for easy-to-clean coatings on ceramic sanitary fixtures.

Scratch-resistant

Refers to a function on surfaces which considerably reduces the scratch factor (see NB KK 15).

Sealing

n-tec refers to all stain resistance increasing systems as sealing measures. Compared to film-forming competitive products (impregnations which generate a patina), n-tec products reach right into the pores, and they don’t just dress them; they fill them up long-term.

Self clean

Describes self-cleaning surface coatings (see Photocatalytically active surfaces).

Sol-Gel

Refers to a sol-gel chemical process in the manufacturing of nano-structured chemicals. Raw materials in the field of chemical nanotechnology in the sol process can be any of the following:

Silicon alkoxides – siloxanes, solvents such as H2O or alcohol as carrier substances, acids as catalysts and much more.

The gel process can contain the following:

Energy influx / chemicals as network basis

Stain agents

These are substances which, after cleaning, leave behind irreversible color damage on surfaces (coffee, red wine, tea, shoe cream, rubber abrasion (shoes/footprints), oil)

Stain resistance

Sensitive surfaces (e.g. sealing – polished porcelain stoneware) have a significantly higher stain resistance to stain-forming agents (coffee, red wine, tea).

Stoneware

Unglazed stoneware tiles with very low water consumption.

Synthesis

Describes scientific processes whereby two or more substances combine into one.

T

Titanium dioxide, TIO2

White powdery pigment with versatile usage range e.g. with E 171 reference in foods like toothpaste, chewing gum etc. but also in sun creams, inks and varnishes. Photocatalytic properties are increasingly used in coatings (see Self Clean, see Photocatalytically Active Surfaces).

Tribological Coatings

Refers to layers which counteract or delay wear due to e.g. friction (see KU F TR 01).

Tribology

(from Greek) applied in the definition of friction, wear and lubrication; and also deals with the optimisation of these effects (see Tribological Coatings).

U

Ultraviolet radiation, UV

This is light which lies outside of the spectrum of light that humans can see. This term is used here because one can still perceive the initial part of this spectrum as blue-violet. The electromagnetic radiation of light is longer than that of X-ray radiation.

Uniform spray pattern

Uniform spray pattern (varnishing process). This is important for obtaining optimal coating quality over the whole surface and without error.

V

VOC

This refers to fluid organic substances (volatile organic compound) which evaporate easily (i.e. they are fluid) – they pass into the physical state of gas even at lower temperatures (e.g. room temperature). In combination with NOx, VOC materials ensure ground-level ozone; this above all means an immense health burden on younger and older people. Damage to the environment also plays a central role in this debate. Our focus on weather-based systems also contributes a strong reduction of these VOC´s.

W

Wash and scrub test

This test is performed on our site – it is based on the DIN and EN norms. This involves the use of standardized brushes or other articles with a defined pressing weight and abrasion cycles (at least 10,000 cycles) for the stressing of the coated surface. After this stressing the surfaces will be evaluated for function change.

Water-based coating

Describes the coating carrier medium; in addition, almost all of our water-based coatings have no identifying marks (as per valid legal guidelines), and they have no or very limited VOC benefits.

Water-loving

See Hydrophilicity

Water-resistant

See Hydrophobicity

Weather resistance

Describes resistance to external influences, such as UV light, environmental and air pollution, outdoors usage; see Weathering.

Weathering

When an environmental simulation is performed artificially in a laboratory or outdoors for the purpose of testing the functionality, durability and quality of coatings. This is conducive to our own development and it also allows for quality assurance (weathering and durability factors); the aim is to discuss as much information as possible about usage life, weather and environmental conditions that the processed materials are subjected to.

Wet chemical application / process

Describes the process whereby fluid chemicals are applied to surfaces and mixed or formed depending on the spatial area, temperature or UV presence.

Wetting angle

See Contact Angle